Specialty Style – U.S. Open Beer Championship – Categories

Category 123: Aged Beer
Aged Beers are any range of color from very light to black. Aged Beers are any beer aged for over one year. A brewer may brew any type of beer of any strength and enhance its character with extended and creative aging conditions. Generally, but not exclusively, beers with high hopping rates, roast malt content, high alcohol content, and/or complex herbal, smoke, or fruit content lend themselves to aging. Beers that are wood-aged, or exhibit Brettanomyces characters or sour/acidic beers should be classified or entered into other categories if those options are available. Beers in this category may be aged in bottles or any type of food-grade vessel. Aged character may manifest itself in mouthfeel, aroma, and flavor. Often the aged character is an expression of oxidative reactions that either bring individual extreme characters into harmony or are characters unique unto themselves. Sherry, fruity, and hop transitions are common during aging. No matter what the effect, the overall balance should be balanced, harmonic, and not extreme or distastefully aggressive. The level of changes created by aging will vary with different types of beer types. Lighter flavored beer types may often manifest aggressive and distasteful oxidation. Whereas higher elevations of hops, malt, or alcohol can help create synergies with “good” oxidative change. The body is variable with style. To allow for accurate judging the brewer must provide additional information about the entry including the classic ale, lager, or experimental style of the beer being aged, experimental or interesting techniques or ingredients, length of aging time, the material in which the beer was aged (glass, stainless, etc.), and other information describing the aging process. Beer entries not accompanied by this information will be at a disadvantage during judging.

Category 124: Experimental Beer
An experimental beer is any beer (lager, ale or other) that is primarily grain–based and employs unusual techniques and/or ingredients. All entries in this subcategory must derive a minimum 51% of the fermentable carbohydrates from malted grains. Judges may consider the overall uniqueness of the process, ingredients used and creativity when evaluating beers entered in this category. Beers not easily matched to other existing categories in this competition would be appropriately entered into this category. For purposes of this competition, beers that are a combination of two or more hybrid and/or traditional categories (spice, fruit, smoke, specialty, porter, etc.) will also be appropriately entered into this category. Unless they represent a combination of two or more hybrid and/or traditional categories, most wood-and barrel-aged beers would probably be more appropriately entered in one of the many wood- and barrel-aged categories or subcategories shown below. To allow for accurate judging the brewer must identify the classic style(s), experimental style(s), process(es) and/or ingredients used to make the beer unique. Beer entries not accompanied by this information will be at a disadvantage during judging.

Category 125: Specialty Beer/Anything Goes
A. Subcategory: Specialty Beer
These beers are brewed using unusual fermentable sugars, grains and starches that contribute to alcohol content other than, or in addition to, malted barley. As nuts generally have some degree of fermentables, beers brewed with nuts would appropriately be entered in this category. The distinctive characters of these special ingredients should be evident either in the aroma, flavor or overall balance of the beer, but not necessarily in overpowering quantities. For example, maple syrup or potatoes would be considered unusual. Rice, corn, or wheat are not considered unusual. Spiced beers brewed using unusual fermentables should be entered in the experimental category. Fruit beers brewed with unusual fermentables should be entered in the fruit beer category. The brewer should explain the special ingredient(s) used and achieved character or nature of the beer, and/or the classic style on which the entry is based, to allow for accurate judging.
B. Subcategory: Anything Goes
The brewer should explain what is unique about this beer and what the  character or nature of   the beer, and/or the classic style on which the entry is based, to allow for accurate judging.

Category 126:  American-Belgo-Style Ale
A. Subcategory: Pale American-Belgo-Style Ale
Pale American-Belgo Ales are gold to light brown. Chill haze may be evident. Fruity-ester aroma is medium to high. Hop aroma is medium to very high, exhibiting American type hop aromas not usually found in traditional Belgian styles. Hop flavor is medium to very high. Hop bitterness is medium to very high. Fruity-ester flavor should be medium to high. Yeast derived characters such as banana, berry, apple, sometimes coriander spice-like and/or smoky-phenolic characters should be portrayed with balance of hops and malt character when fermented with Belgian yeasts. Diacetyl should be absent. Sulfur-like yeast character should be absent.
Brettanomyces character should be absent. Pale American-Belgo-Style Ales are either 1) nonBelgian beer types portraying the unique characters imparted by yeasts typically used in big fruity Belgian-style ales, or 2) defined Belgian-style beers portraying a unique character of American hops. These beers are unique beers unto themselves. To allow for accurate judging the brewer must provide information that identifies the classic beer style being elaborated upon (if there is one) or other information unique to the entry such as hop variety(ies) used, yeast type, etc.
Statistics:
IBUs: Varies with style
SRM: SRM 5-15
ABV: Varies with style
B. Subcategory: Dark American-Belgo-Style Ale
Dark American-Belgo Ales are brown to black. Chill haze may be evident. Fruity-ester aroma is medium to high. Hop aroma is medium to very high, exhibiting American type hop aromas not usually found in traditional Belgian styles. Perception of roasted malts or barley will be subtle to robust. Hop flavor is medium to very high. Hop bitterness is medium to very high. Fruity-ester flavor should be medium to high. Yeast derived characters such as banana, berry, apple, sometimes coriander spice-like and/or smoky-phenolic characters should be portrayed with balance of hops and malt character when fermented with Belgian yeasts. Diacetyl should be absent. Sulfur-like yeast character should be absent. Brettanomyces character should be absent. Dark American-Belgo-Style Ales are either 1) non-Belgian darker beer types portraying the unique characters imparted by yeasts typically used in big fruity Belgian-style ales, or 2) defined darker Belgian-style beers portraying a unique character of American hops. These beers are unique beers unto themselves. To allow for accurate judging the brewer must provide information that identifies the classic beer style being elaborated upon (if there is one) or other information unique to the entry such as hop variety(ies) used, yeast type, etc.
Statistics:
IBUs: Varies with style
SRM: SRM 16+th style

Category 127: Kellerbier or Zwickelbier
Subcategory A: Kellerbier: Pale Kellerbier
A very common seasonal summer beer brewed by many of the Munich area breweries and served in the beer gardens, where they are very popular.
Overall Impression: A young, fresh Helles, so while still a malty, fully-attenuated Pils malt showcase, the hop character (aroma, flavor and bitterness) is more pronounced, and the beer is cloudy, often with some level of diacetyl, and possibly has some green apple and/or other yeast-derived notes. As with the traditional Helles, the Keller version is still a beer intended to be drunk by the liter, so overall it should remain a light, refreshing, easy drinking golden lager.
Aroma: Moderately-low to moderately-high spicy, floral, or herbal hop aroma. Very low to moderate diacetyl, possible very low green apple or other yeast derived notes. Pleasantly grainysweet, clean malt aroma, with possible low background note of DMS.
Appearance: Slight haze to moderately cloudy, but never extremely cloudy or murky. Medium yellow to pale gold color. Creamy white head with good persistence. When served on cask, can have low carbonation and very low head.
Flavor: Moderately malty with a rounded, grainy-sweet profile. Low to moderately-high spicy, floral, or herbal hop flavor, with a moderate hop bitterness that can linger. Finish is crisp and dry, but the aftertaste remains malty. Very low to moderate diacetyl, which should always remain at a pleasant,
drinkable level that balances somewhat with the other characteristics of the beer; overwhelming diacetyl is not appropriate. Possible very low green apple or other yeast derived notes, and possible low background note of DMS.
Mouthfeel: Medium body. Low to medium carbonation.
Depending on the level of yeast in suspension, it may assist in creating a slightly creamy texture. A slight slickness on the tongue may be present from the diacetyl.
Statistics:
IBUs: 20 – 35
SRM: 3 –7
ABV: 4.7 – 5.4%

Category B: Kellerbier: Amber Kellerbier
Overall Impression: A young, unfiltered, and unpasteurized beer that is between a Helles and Märzen in color, spicier in the hops with greater attenuation. Interpretations range in color and balance, but remain in the drinkable 4.8% ABV neighborhood. Balance ranges from the dry, spicy and palecolored interpretations by St. Georgen and Löwenbräu of Buttenheim, to darker and maltier interpretations in the Fränkische Schweiz. This style is above all a method of producing simple drinkable beers for neighbors out of local ingredients to be served fresh. Balance with a focus on drinkability and digestibility is important.
Aroma: Moderate intensity of German malt, typically rich, bready, somewhat toasty, with light bread crust notes. Moderately-low to moderate spicy peppery hop aroma. Very low to low diacetyl, occasionally low to moderately-low sulfur and very low green apple or other yeast-derived notes. Caramel, biscuity, or roasted malt aroma is inappropriate. Appearance: Moderately cloudy to clear depending on age, but never extremely cloudy or murky. Gold to deep reddishamber color. Off-white, creamy head. When served on cask, can have low carbonation and very low head.
Flavor: Initial malt flavor may suggest sweetness, but finish is moderately dry to dry, and slightly bitter. Distinctive and complex maltiness often includes a bready-toasty aspect. Hop bitterness is moderate to moderately high, and spicy or herbal hop flavor is low to moderately high. Balance can be either on the malt or hop side, but the finish is not sweet. Noticeable caramel or roasted malt flavors are inappropriate. Very low to low diacetyl. Possible very low green apple or other yeastderived notes. Smooth, malty aftertaste.
Mouthfeel: Medium body, with a creamy texture and medium carbonation. Fully fermented, without a sweet or cloying
impression.
Vital Statistics:
IBUs: 25 – 40
SRM: 7 – 17
ABV: 4.8 – 5.4%

Category 128. Brett Beer
Aroma: Variable by base style. Young Brett-fermented beers will possess more fruity notes (e.g., tropical fruit, stone fruit, or citrus), but this is variable by the strain(s) of Brett used. For 100% Brett beers heavily hopped with American hop varieties, the fermentation-derived flavors are often difficult to tease from the hop aromatics. Older 100% Brett beers may start to develop a little funk (e.g., barnyard, wet hay, or slightly earthy or smoky notes), but this character should not dominate. If the beer is fermented with a brewer’s yeast in addition to Brett, some of the character of the primary yeast may remain. A faint sourness is acceptable but should not be a prominent character.

Appearance: Variable by base style. Clarity can be variable, and depends on the base style and ingredients used. Some haze is not necessarily a fault.

Flavor: Variable by base style. Brett character may range from minimal to aggressive. Can be quite fruity (e.g., tropical fruit, berry, stone fruit, citrus), or have some smoky, earthy, or barnyard character. Should not be unpleasantly funky, such as Band-Aid, fetid, nail polish remover, cheese, etc. Light sourness is acceptable with the beer being lightly tart, but should not be truly sour. Always fruitier when young, gaining more funk with age. May not be acetic or lactic. Malt flavors are often less pronounced than in the base style, leaving a beer most often dry and crisp due to high attenuation by the Brett.

Mouth Feel: Variable by base style. Generally a light body, lighter than what might be expected from the base style but an overly thin body is a fault. Generally moderate to high carbonation. Head retention is variable.

Overall Impression
Most often drier and fruitier than the base style suggests. Funky notes range from low to high, depending on the age of the beer and strain(s) of Brett used. Funkiness is generally restrained in younger 100% Brett examples, but tends to increase with age. May possess a light acidity, although this does not come from Brett.
Alcohol by Volume : Varies with style
Bitterness (IBU): Varies with style
Color SRM (EBC): Varies with style

Category 129: Session Beer
Any style of beer can be made lower in strength than described in the classic style guidelines. The goal should be to reach a balance between the style’s character and the lower alcohol content. Drinkability is a character in the overall balance of these beers. Beers in this category must not exceed 4.1% alcohol by weight (5.1% alcohol by volume). To allow for accurate judging the brewer must identify the base style by name or category number that is being created lower in alcohol and/or appropriately identify the style created (for example: half-alt, singlefest or baby bock). Beer entries not accompanied by this information will be at a disadvantage during judging.
Alcohol by Volume: 4.0-5.1%
Bitterness (IBU): 10-30
Color SRM (EBC): 2+ (4+ EBC)

Category 130: Gluten-Free Beer
A beer that is made from fermentable sugars, grains and converted carbohydrates. Ingredients do not contain gluten, in other words zero gluten (No barley, wheat, spelt, oats, rye, etc). May or may not contain malted grains that do not contain gluten. Brewers typically design and identify these beers along other style guidelines with regard to flavor, aroma and appearance profile. NOTE: These guidelines do not supersede any government regulations. Wine, mead, flavored malt beverages or beverages other than beer as defined by the TTB (U.S. Trade and Tax Bureau) are not considered “gluten-free beer” under these guidelines. To allow for accurate judging the brewer must identify the ingredients and fermentation type used to make the beer, and/or the classic beer style being elaborated upon (if there is one) with regard to flavor, aroma and appearance.
Alcohol by Volume : Varies with style
Bitterness (IBU): Varies with style
Color SRM (EBC): Varies with style

Category 131: Near Gluten Free
Gluten reduced beers’ original ingredients would have gluten content that has been reduced by enzymes or other processes to reduced

Category 132 Peanut/Peanut Butter 
Peanut Beers are any beers using peanuts, peanut flavors or  peanut butter as an adjunct in either the mash, kettle, primary or secondary fermentation, providing obvious (ranging from subtle to intense), yet harmonious, qualities. Clear or hazy beer is acceptable in appearance. To allow for accurate judging, the brewer should list what nuts are used, and may also list a classic style of base beer, or any other ingredients or processes used. Beer entries not accompanied by this information may be at a disadvantage during judging.

Category 133: Nut
Nut Beers are any beers using nuts/nut flavors(hazelnut almonds etc) as an adjunct in either the mash, kettle, primary or secondary fermentation, providing obvious (ranging from subtle to intense), yet harmonious, qualities. Clear or hazy beer is acceptable in appearance. To allow for accurate judging, the brewer should list what nuts are used, and may also list a classic style of base beer, or any other ingredients or processes used. Beer entries not accompanied by this information may be at a disadvantage during judging.

Category 134: Tea Beers
Tea Beers are any beers using tea(Chai, black, Green etc) as an adjunct in either the mash, kettle, primary or secondary fermentation, providing obvious (ranging from subtle to intense), yet harmonious, qualities. Clear or hazy beer is acceptable in appearance. To allow for accurate judging, the brewer should list what teas are used, and may also list a classic style of base beer, or any other ingredients or processes used. Beer entries not accompanied by this information may be at a disadvantage during judging.

135. Historical Beer
a. Historical Beer
b. Kentucky Common Beer
c. Grodziskie
d. Adambier
e. Dutch-Style Kuyt Beer
f. Finnish-Style Sahti
g. Swedish-Style Gotlandsdricke
h. Breslau-Style Schoeps
136i. London Brown Ale

 

135a. Historical Beer 
Color: Varies with underlying style
Clarity: Varies with underlying style
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Varies with underlying style
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Varies with underlying style
Perceived bitterness: Varies with underlying style
Fermentation Characteristics: Varies with underlying style
Body: Varies with underlying style
Additional notes: Beers in this category include established historical beers and/or brewing traditions from any era or part of the world that don’t fit within another beer style defined within these guidelines. Some Historical beers that could fit categories such as Experimental, Herb & Spice, Field Beer, etc. may be categorized as historical beers. This category pays tribute to beers that incorporate unique brewing ingredients and/or techniques that were used in the past. Within the framework of these guidelines, examples of Historical Beers include South American Chicha, Nepalese Chong/Chang, African sorghumbased beers, and many others.

To allow for accurate judging the brewer must provide additional information about the entry including primarily the historical beer style being emulated or recreated, and any unique ingredients used and/or processing which contribute to perceived sensory outcomes. The brewer may include historical context about the entry. This information will help provide a basis for comparison between highly diverse entries, and is reviewed and edited by the competition manager to remove bias. Entries not accompanied by this information will be at a disadvantage during judging.
Original Gravity (°Plato) Varies with style
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) Varies with style
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) Varies with style
Hop Bitterness (IBU) Varies with style
Color SRM (EBC) Varies with style

135b: Kentucky Common Beer
Color: Medium to deep amber
Clarity: Chill haze or yeast haze is acceptable Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Medium-low to medium. Sweet malt is the dominant flavor attribute. Notes of corn, caramel, toffee and/or bread may be present.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Low to medium. May exhibit floral or spicy attributes typical of early 20th century North American hop varieties. Perceived bitterness: Low to medium Fermentation Characteristics: Low to medium-low fruity esters may be present. Very low levels of DMS, if present, are acceptable. Diacetyl should not be present.
Body: Medium-low to medium with a dry finish enhanced by high carbonation Additional notes: This American-born regional style proliferated around Louisville, Kentucky, from the Civil War era until Prohibition. Corn grits or flakes were commonly used at a rate or 25-35% of the total grist. Minerally attributes resulted from the use of hard brewing water. These beers were consumed very young, going from brewhouse to consumer in as little as one week. Early 20th century brewing literature mentions a slight tartness developing during fermentation as a characteristic attribute of this style. If tartness is present in modern versions, it should be at very low levels.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.040-1.055 (10-13.6 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.010-1.018 (2.6-4.6 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 3.2%-4.4% (4.0%-5.5%)
Hop Bitterness (IBU) 15-30
Color SRM (EBC) 11-20 (22-40 EBC)

135c. Grodziskie
Color: Straw to gold
Clarity: Chill haze is acceptable at low temperatures
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Oak-smoked wheat malt comprises the entire grain bill. Assertive smoked wheat malt aromas and flavors are medium to medium-high with aroma dominated by oak smoke.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Aroma and flavor of noble hops ranges from not present to low
Perceived bitterness: Medium-low to medium
Fermentation Characteristics: Fruity esters are low.  Diacetyl and DMS should not be present. An overall crisp flavor is achieved by managing fermentation temperatures. Sourness should not be present.
Body: Low to medium-low
Additional notes: Grodziskie (sometimes referred to as Graetzer in German) is an ale style of Polish origin. Historic versions were often bottle conditioned and  highly carbonated.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.028-1.036 (7.1-9 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.006-1.010 (1.5-2.6 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 2.1%-2.9% (2.7%-3.7%)
Hop Bitterness (IBU) 15-25
Color SRM (EBC) 3-6 (6-12 EBC)
 
135e. Dutch-Style Kuyt Beer
Color: Gold to copper
Clarity: Chill haze and other haze is acceptable
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: The aroma is grainy or grainy-bready. The distinctive character of this beer is derived from the use of at least 45 percent oat malt, at least 20 percent wheat malt with pale malt making up the remainder of the grain bill.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Very low to low from noble hops or other traditional European varieties
Perceived bitterness: Medium-low to medium
Fermentation Characteristics: Esters may be present at low levels. Diacetyl is usually absent in these beers but may be present at very low levels. Acidity and sweet corn-like DMS should not be present.
Body: Low to medium
Additional notes: This style of beer was popular in the Netherlands from 1400-1550.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.050-1.080 (12.4-19.3°Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato)1.006-1.015 (1.5-3.7 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight(Volume) 3.8%-6.3% (4.7%-7.9%)
Hop Bitterness(IBU) 25-35
Color SRM (EBC) 5-12.5 (10-25 EBC)

135f: Finnish-Style Sahti
Color: Pale to copper
Clarity: Chill haze, yeast haze and general turbidity is acceptable.
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Malt aroma ismedium-low to medium. Malt flavor is medium to high with malt sweetness present.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Not present to very low
Perceived bitterness: Very low
Fermentation Characteristics: These beers can vary significantly in character. Fruity ester and yeasty aromas are medium to high. Diacetyl should not be present. Bread/bakers’ yeast is traditionally used for fermentation and may produce flavors and aromas of complex alcohols, clove-like phenolics and banana fruitiness.
Body: Medium to full
Additional notes: Juniper aroma and flavor should be present due to the use of juniper boughs/branches and berries in the brewing process
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.060-1.090 (14.7-21.6°Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato)1.016-1.040 (4-10 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight(Volume) 5.6%-6.8% (7.0%-8.5%)
Hop Bitterness(IBU) 3-16
Color SRM (EBC) 4-12 (8-24 EBC)

135g:  Swedish-Style Gotlandsdricke
Color: Pale to copper
Clarity: Chill haze or yeast haze is acceptable Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Medium-low to medium. Birchwood smoke character, derived from the malting process, should be present.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Not present to very low
Perceived bitterness: Very low to medium-low
Fermentation Characteristics: Bread/bakers’ yeast is traditionally used for fermentation and contributes to unique character of these beers. Fruity ester and yeasty aromas are medium to high. Diacetyl should not be present.
Body: Medium to full
Additional notes: Juniper aroma and flavor should be present due to the use of juniper boughs/branches and berries in the brewing process. These beers are characterized by juniper and birchwood smoked malt.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.040-1.050 (10-12.4 °Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.010-1.014(2.5-3.5 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 4.4%-5.2% (5.5%-6.5%)
Hop Bitterness (IBU) 15-25
Color SRM (EBC) 4-12 (8-24 EBC)

135h. Breslau-Style Schoeps
Color: Straw to black
Clarity: Chill haze is acceptable at low temperatures. Hue may be too dark to perceive clarity in some versions.
Perceived Malt Aroma & Flavor: Malt sweetness is medium to medium-high with a pronounced malt character. A high proportion of pale or dark wheat malt (as much as 80 percent) is used to brew these beers as well as Pilsener and other pale, toasted or dark specialty malts. Paler versions may have bready, aromatic biscuit malt attributes. Darker versions may exhibit roast malt bitterness at low levels, and toasted or nutty malt attributes. Caramel-like malt attributes are not present.
Perceived Hop Aroma & Flavor: Very low
Perceived bitterness: Medium-low to medium
Fermentation Characteristics: Fruity esters may be present as these beers are fermented with ale yeast as opposed to wheat beer yeast. Diacetyl and phenolic aromas and flavors should not be present.
Body: Full
Additional notes: Traditional German wheat beer yeast is not used in this style of beer.
Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.067-1.072 (16.5-17.5°Plato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.016-1.024 (4.5-6.1 °Plato)
Alcohol by Weight(Volume) 4.8%-5.6% (6.0%-7.0%)
Hop Bitterness (IBU) 20-30
Color SRM (EBC) 2-40+ (4-80+ EBC)

136i. London Brown Ale
Overall Impression
A luscious, sweet, malt-oriented dark brown ale, with caramel and toffee malt complexity and a sweet finish.

Appearance
Medium to very dark brown color, but can be nearly black. Nearly opaque, although should be relatively clear if visible. Low to moderate off-white to tan head.

Aroma
Moderate malty-sweet aroma, often with a rich, caramel or toffee-like character. Low to medium fruity esters, often dark fruit like plums. Very low to no hop aroma, earthy or floral qualities.

Flavor
Deep, caramel or toffee-like malty and sweet flavor on the palate and lasting into the finish. Hints of biscuit and coffee are common. Some fruity esters can be present (typically dark fruit); relatively clean fermentation profile for an English ale. Low hop bitterness. Hop flavor is low to non-existent, possibly earthy or floral in character. Moderately-low to no perceivable roasty or bitter black malt flavor. Moderately sweet finish with a smooth, malty aftertaste. May have a sugary-sweet flavor.

Mouthfeel
Medium body, but the residual sweetness may give a heavier impression. Medium-low to medium carbonation. Quite creamy and smooth in texture, particularly for its gravity.

Comments
Increasingly rare; Mann’s has over 90% market share in Britain, but in an increasingly small segment. Always bottled. Frequently used as a sweet mixer with cask mild and bitter in pubs. Commercial versions can be pasteurized and back-sweetened, which gives more of a sugary-sweet flavor.

History
Developed by Mann’s as a bottled product in 1902. Claimed at the time to be “the sweetest beer in London.” Pre-WWI versions were around 5% ABV, but same general balance. Declined in popularity in second half of 20th century, and now nearly extinct.

Characteristic Ingredients
English pale ale malt as a base with a healthy proportion of darker caramel malts and often some roasted (black) malt and wheat malt (this is Mann’s traditional grist – others can rely on dark sugars for color and flavor). Moderate to high carbonate water. English hop varieties are most authentic, though with low flavor and bitterness almost any type could be used. Post-fermentation sweetening with lactose or artificial sweeteners, or sucrose (if pasteurized).

Style Comparison
May seem somewhat like a less roasty version of a sweet stout (and lower-gravity, at least for US sweet stout examples) or a sweet version of a dark mild.

Vital Statistics
IBU: 15 – 20
SRM: 22 – 35
ABV: 2.8% – 3.6%